Annual international rugby union contest

Vi Nations Title
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2022 Six Nations Title
Guinness Six Nations.png

The Guinness Six Nations logo

Sport Rugby wedlock
Instituted 1883 (as Habitation Nations Championship)
1910 (as Five Nations Championship)
2000 (equally Six Nations Championship)
Number of teams 6
State
England

France

Ireland

Italian republic

Scotland

Wales
Holders
Wales


(2021)

Most titles
England

(39
titles)

Website www.sixnationsrugby.com

The
Six Nations Championship
(known as the
Guinness Six Nations
[n 1]
for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international men’s rugby union contest between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italian republic, Scotland and Wales. The current champions are Wales, who won the 2021 tournament.

The tournament is organised by the unions of the six participating nations under the banner of Six Nations Rugby, which is responsible for the promotion and operation of the men’s, women’s and under-20s tournaments, and the Autumn International Serial, also every bit the negotiation and management of their centralised commercial rights.

The Six Nations is the successor to the Abode Nations Championship (1883–1909 and 1932–39), played betwixt teams from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, which was the first international rugby matrimony tournament.[2]
With the add-on of French republic, this became the Five Nations Championship (1910–31 and 1947–99), which in turn became the Half-dozen Nations Title with the addition of Italia.

England and Wales take won the championship the most times, both with 39 titles, simply England have won the nigh outright titles with 29. Since the Six Nations era started in 2000, only Italy and Scotland have failed to win the Half-dozen Nations championship.

The women’s tournament started equally the Women’due south Habitation Nations in the 1996 flavor.

History and expansion

[edit]

The tournament was start played in 1883 as the Home Nations Title among the iv Habitation Nations of the Great britain – England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. However, England was excluded from the 1888 and 1889 tournaments due to their refusal to join the International Rugby Football Board. The tournament then became the Five Nations Title in 1910 with the add-on of France. The tournament was expanded in 2000 to become the Six Nations Championship with the improver of Italian republic.

Following the relative success of the Tier 2 nations in the 2015 Rugby World Cup, there were calls by Octavian Morariu, the president of Rugby Europe, to let Georgia and Romania join the Vi Nations due to their consequent success in the European Nations Cup and ability to compete in the Rugby World Cup.[three]
[4]

Format

[edit]

The locations of the Six Nations participants

The tournament begins on the first weekend in February and culminates with Super Sabbatum on the second or third Saturday in March. The format of the Championship is simple: each team plays every other team once (making a full of xv matches), with domicile footing advantage alternating from 1 year to the next. Prior to the 2017 tournament, 2 points were awarded for a win, one for a depict and none for a loss. Unlike many other rugby union competitions the bonus point system had non previously been used.

On 30 November 2016, the Six Nations Committee announced that a bonus bespeak system would be trialled in the 2017 Championship. The system is like to the one used in near rugby championships (0 points for a loss, 2 for a draw, 4 for a win, 1 for scoring four or more tries in a match, and 1 for losing past 7 points or fewer). The but divergence is that a team that wins all their games (a One thousand Slam) are automatically awarded 3 actress points – to ensure they cannot be overtaken by a defeated squad on bonus points.

Prior to 1994, teams equal on friction match points shared the title. Since so, ties have been broken by considering the points difference (total points scored minus total points conceded) of the teams. The rules of the championship further provide that if teams tie on both lucifer points and points difference, the squad that scored the most tries wins the championship. Were this decider to exist a necktie, the tying teams would share the championship.[5]
To date, nonetheless, match points and points deviation have been sufficient to determine the championship.

The Wooden Spoon is a metaphorical award given to the team that finishes in final place, or alternatively by a squad that loses all of its games in a championship.[6]
Since the inaugural 6 Nations tournament in 2000, only England and Ireland have avoided finishing terminal. Italy have finished last xv times in the Six Nations era, and accept lost every match eleven times.

Abode advantage in the 6 Nations
Three home matches Two habitation matches
Even years
France

  • v England
  • v Ireland
  • v Italia

Ireland

  • v Italy
  • five Scotland
  • v Wales

Wales

  • five France
  • five Italy
  • v Scotland

England

  • v Ireland
  • v Wales

Italy

  • 5 England
  • five Scotland

Scotland

  • 5 England
  • v France
Odd years
England

  • v France
  • v Italy
  • 5 Scotland

Italy

  • five French republic
  • v Ireland
  • v Wales

Scotland

  • v Ireland
  • v Italy
  • v Wales

France

  • 5 Scotland
  • v Wales

Republic of ireland

  • v England
  • five France

Wales

  • v England
  • 5 Ireland

Trophies

[edit]

Championship Trophy

[edit]

The Original Half dozen Nations Championship Trophy (1993–2014) and The Triple Crown Trophy

The winners of the 6 Nations are presented with the Title Trophy.[7]
This was originally conceived by the Earl of Westmorland, and was commencement presented to the winners of the 1993 championship, France. It is a sterling silver trophy, designed by James Brent-Ward and made by a team of eight silversmiths from the London firm William Comyns.

It has 15 side panels representing the fifteen members of the team and with iii handles to correspond the three officials (referee and 2 bear upon judges). The cup has a capacity of 3.75 litres – sufficient for five bottles of champagne. Within the mahogany base of operations is a concealed drawer which contains half-dozen culling finials, each a silver replica of one of the team emblems, which tin can be screwed on the detachable hat.

A new trophy was introduced for the 2015 Title.[8]
The new trophy was designed and crafted by Thomas Lyte silversmiths and replaces the 1993 edition, which is being retired equally information technology represented the nations that took part in the Five Nations Championship. Republic of ireland were the last team to win the one-time trophy and the offset team to win the new ane.[ix]

Grand Slam and Triple Crown

[edit]

A team that wins all its games wins the ‘Thousand Slam’.

The Triple Crown may only be won by 1 of the Home Nations of England, Republic of ireland, Scotland or Wales, when one nation wins all three of their matches against the others. The Triple Crown dates back to the original Habitation Nations Championship, only the physical Triple Crown Bays has been awarded simply since 2006, when the Royal Bank of Scotland (the primary sponsor of the contest) commissioned Hamilton & Inches to design and create a defended Triple Crown Bays. It has since been won four times by Republic of ireland and Wales, and three times past England.

Rivalry trophies

[edit]

Several private competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament. Some of these trophies are besides awarded for other matches between the two teams exterior the Six Nations.

Trophy Teams Since Notes
Calcutta Loving cup England and Scotland 1879[10] Made from melted-down Indian rupees donated by the Calcutta Club.
Millennium Trophy England and Ireland 1988 Presented to celebrate Dublin’south millennium in 1988.[11]
Centenary Quaich Ireland and Scotland 1989[12]
[13]
[xiv]
Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy France and Italian republic 2007 On the 200th anniversary of Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader in the unification of Italy and volunteer in the French Republican Army against Prussia.
Auld Alliance Bays France and Scotland 2018 In retentivity of the war expressionless from the rugby communities of Scotland and France.[15]
Doddie Weir Cup Wales and Scotland 2018 In recognition of Doddie Weir, who founded the My Name’five Doddie Foundation which supports and aids research into Motor neuron illness.[16]

Venues

[edit]

As of the 2021 competition, Six Nations matches are held in the post-obit stadiums:

Team Stadium Location Capacity
England Twickenham Stadium London 82,000
France Stade de France Saint-Denis 81,338
Wales Principality Stadium Cardiff 73,931
Italy Stadio Olimpico Rome 72,698
Scotland Murrayfield Stadium Edinburgh 67,144
Ireland Aviva Stadium Dublin 51,700

The opening of Aviva Stadium in May 2010 ended the arrangement with the Gaelic Athletic Clan (GAA) that allowed the all-Ireland governing body for rugby union, the Irish Rugby Football game Union, to utilise the GAA’s flagship stadium, Croke Park, for its international matches. This arrangement was fabricated necessary by the 2007 closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland’due south traditional home at Lansdowne Road; Aviva Stadium was built on the former Lansdowne Road site. During this structure, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82,300.

In 2012 Italian republic moved their habitation games from the 32,000 seat Stadio Flaminio, to Stadio Olimpico, also in Rome, with a chapters of 72,000.

The French Rugby Federation (FFR) had planned to build a new stadium of its own, seating 82,000 in the southern suburbs of Paris,[17]
considering of frustrations with their tenancy of Stade de France.[18]
Still the project was cancelled in Dec 2016.[19]
France played their 2018 friction match against Italy at Stade Vélodrome in Marseille.[20]

In 2020, Wales played their final game at Parc y Scarlets in Llanelli due to the Millennium Stadium being used every bit Dragon’south Heart Infirmary in response to the COVID-nineteen pandemic.[21]

Results

[edit]

Overall

[edit]



England


France


Ireland


Italian republic


Scotland


Wales
Tournaments 125 92 127 22 127 127
Outright wins (shared wins)
Home Nations 5 (4) North/A 4 (three) N/A 9 (ii) seven (3)
Five Nations 17 (6) 12 (8) 6 (5) N/A five (half dozen) 15 (8)
Six Nations 7 5 4 6
Overall 29
(ten)
17
(8)
fourteen
(8)

(0)
14
(8)
28
(11)
Grand Slams
Abode Nations N/A North/A ii
5 Nations eleven 6 i Due north/A 3 half dozen
Six Nations two iii 2 four
Overall 13 9 3 iii 12
Triple Crowns
Home Nations five N/A ii North/A vii 6
V Nations 16 Due north/A 4 N/A 3 11
Six Nations 5 Northward/A v N/A 5
Overall 26 N/A xi N/A 10 22
Wooden Spoons
Habitation Nations 7 Northward/A ten N/A 5 2
V Nations x 9 15 North/A 15 6
Six Nations 1 xvi 4 one
Overall 17 10 25 16 24 9


Dwelling Nations (1883–1909)

[edit]

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1883
England
Non contested
England

England
1884
England

England

England
1885 Not completed Not completed
1886
England and

Scotland
1887
Scotland
1888 Not completed England did not participate
1889 Not completed England did not participate
1890
England and

Scotland

England
1891
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1892
England

England

England
1893
Wales

Wales

Scotland
1894
Ireland

Ireland

Scotland
1895
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1896
Ireland

Scotland
1897 Non completed Not completed
England
1898 Non completed Non completed
1899
Republic of ireland

Ireland

Scotland
1900
Wales

Wales
1901
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1902
Wales

Wales

England
1903
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1904
Scotland

Scotland
1905
Wales

Wales

Scotland
1906
Republic of ireland and

Wales

England
1907
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1908
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland
1909
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland


V Nations (1910–1931)

[edit]

Year Champions G Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1910
England

England
1911
Wales

Wales

Wales

England
1912
Republic of ireland and

England

Scotland
1913
England

England

England

England
1914
England

England

England

England
1915–19 Not held due to Earth War I
1920
Scotland,

Wales and

England

England
1921
England

England

England

England
1922
Wales

England
1923
England

England

England

England
1924
England

England

England

England
1925
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1926
Republic of ireland and

Scotland

Scotland
1927
Ireland and

Scotland

Scotland
1928
England

England

England

England
1929
Scotland

Scotland
1930
England
1931
Wales

Scotland


Home Nations (1932–1939)

[edit]

Year Champions 1000 Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Loving cup
1932
England,

Republic of ireland and

Wales

England
1933
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1934
England

England

England
1935
Ireland

Scotland
1936
Wales

England
1937
England

England

England
1938
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1939
England,

Ireland,

Wales

England


Five Nations (1940–1999)

[edit]

Year Champions M Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium Trophy Centenary Quaich
1940–46 Non held due to World War Ii Not contested
1947
England and

Wales

England
1948
Ireland

Ireland

Republic of ireland

Scotland
1949
Ireland

Ireland

England
1950
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland
1951
Ireland

England
1952
Wales

Wales

Wales

England
1953
England

England
1954
England,

France and

Wales

England

England
1955
France and

Wales

England
1956
Wales

England
1957
England

England

England

England
1958
England
1959
French republic
1960
England and

French republic

England

England
1961
France

England
1962
France
1963
England

England
1964
Scotland and

Wales

Scotland
1965
Wales

Wales
1966
Wales

Scotland
1967
French republic

England
1968
France

France

England
1969
Wales

Wales

England
1970
France and

Wales

Scotland
1971
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland
1972 Not completed
Scotland
1973
England,

France,

Ireland,


Scotland,

Wales

England
1974
Ireland

Scotland
1975
Wales

England
1976
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland
1977
France

French republic

Wales

England
1978
Wales

Wales

Wales

England
1979
Wales

Wales
1980
England

England

England

England
1981
France

France

England
1982
Ireland

Republic of ireland
1983
France and

Ireland

Scotland
1984
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland
1985
Republic of ireland

Ireland

England
1986
French republic and

Scotland

Scotland
1987
France

French republic

England
1988
France and

Wales

Wales

England
1989
French republic

England

Scotland
1990
Scotland

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland

England

Scotland
1991
England

England

England

England

England

Scotland
1992
England

England

England

England

England

Scotland
1993
France

England

Republic of ireland

Scotland
1994
Wales

England

Ireland
1995
England

England

England

England

England

Scotland
1996
England

England

England

England

Scotland
1997
France

France

England

England

England

Scotland
1998
France

France

England

England

England

Scotland
1999
Scotland

England

England

Scotland


Six Nations (2000–present)

[edit]

Year Champions M Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium
Bays
Centenary
Quaich
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Trophy
Auld Alliance
Trophy
Doddie Weir
Cup
Wooden spoon
2000
England

Scotland

England

Ireland
Not contested Non contested Not contested
Italia
2001
England

England

Ireland

Scotland

Italy
2002
French republic

France

England

England

England

Ireland

Italia
2003
England

England

England

England

England

Ireland

Wales
2004
French republic

France

Ireland

England

Ireland

Ireland

Scotland
2005
Wales

Wales

Wales

England

Ireland

Ireland

Italy
2006
French republic

Ireland

Scotland

Republic of ireland

Ireland

Italy
2007
France

Republic of ireland

England

Ireland

Ireland

France

Scotland
2008
Wales

Wales

Wales

Scotland

England

Ireland

France

Italy
2009
Republic of ireland

Ireland

Ireland

England

Ireland

Ireland

French republic

Italy
2010
French republic

France

Ireland

Scotland

France

Italy
2011
England

England

Republic of ireland

Ireland

Italy

Italy
2012
Wales

Wales

Wales

England

England

Ireland

France

Scotland
2013
Wales

England

England

Scotland

Italy

French republic
2014
Ireland

England

England

England

Ireland

France

Italian republic
2015
Ireland

England

Ireland

Ireland

France

Scotland
2016
England

England

England

England

England

Republic of ireland

France

Italy
2017
England

England

Ireland

Scotland

France

Italy
2018
Ireland

Ireland

Ireland

Scotland

Ireland

Ireland

France

Scotland

Italia
2019
Wales

Wales

Wales

England

Republic of ireland

France

French republic

Wales

Italian republic
2020
England

England

England

England

Ireland

France

Scotland

Scotland

Italy
2021
Wales

Wales

Scotland

Republic of ireland

Ireland

France

Scotland

Wales

Italy
2022
Scotland

France

Titles and awards

[edit]

Wooden Spoon

[edit]

Wooden Spoons (last place)
Team Wooden Spoons Last

Wooden Spoon
HNC FNC SNC

Ireland
25 1998 11 xiv 0

Scotland
24 2015 five xv 4

England
xix 1987 vii 12 0

Wales
17 2003 6 10 1

Italy
xvi 2021 N/A Due north/A 16

France
xiii 2013 N/A 12 one

Dwelling Nations and Five Nations

[edit]

Wooden Spoon winners (alone in last identify)
Team Wooden Spoons Years awarded

Republic of ireland
25 1884,
1890,
1891,
1893,
1895,
1900, 1904,
1909,
1920, 1934,
1938,
1955, 1958,
1960, 1961,
1962, 1964,
1977,
1981,
1984,
1986,
1992, 1996, 1997,
1998

Scotland
20 1902,
1911, 1930,
1932, 1935,
1936,
1939,
1947,
1952,
1953,
1954, 1956, 1959,
1965,
1968, 1971,
1978,
1979,
1985,
1994

England
17 1887,
1899,
1901,
1903,
1905, 1906,
1907,
1931,
1948, 1950,
1966,
1972, 1974, 1975,
1976,
1983, 1987

France
ix 1910,
1912,
1913,
1925,
1926,
1929,
1957,
1969, 1999

Wales
9 1889,
1892,
1937, 1949, 1963, 1967,
1990, 1993,
1995
1883, 1885, 1886, 1888, 1897, 1898 and 1914 were non completed and 1973 was shared between each nation.

Assuming indicates that the squad did not win whatsoever matches.

Six Nations

[edit]

Wooden Spoon winners (last place)
Team Wooden Spoons Years awarded

Italy
sixteen 2000,
2001,
2002,
2005,
2006, 2008,
2009, 2010, 2011,
2014,
2016,
2017,
2018,
2019,
2020,
2021

Scotland
4 2004, 2007,
2012,
2015

Wales
1 2003

France
i 2013

England

Ireland

Bold indicates that the team did not win any matches.

Player awards

[edit]

Thespian of the title[22]
Twelvemonth Winner
2004
Ireland

Gordon D’Arcy
2005
Wales

Martyn Williams
2006
Ireland

Brian O’Driscoll
2007
Ireland

Brian O’Driscoll (2)
2008
Wales

Shane Williams
2009
Ireland

Brian O’Driscoll (3)
2010
Ireland

Tommy Bowe
2011
Italy

Andrea Masi
2012
Wales

Dan Lydiate
2013
Wales

Leigh Halfpenny
2014
England

Mike Dark-brown
2015
Ireland

Paul O’Connell
2016
Scotland

Stuart Hogg
2017
Scotland

Stuart Hogg (2)
2018
Ireland

Jacob Stockdale
2019
Wales

Alun Wyn Jones
2020
France

Antoine Dupont
2021
Scotland

Hamish Watson

Records

[edit]

Ronan O’Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with 557 points. England’southward Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match (35 points against Italia in 2001) and one flavor with 89 (scored in 2001).

The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries confronting Wales in 1887.[23]
England’southward Cyril Lowe and Scotland’southward Ian Smith jointly agree the record for tries in i season with 8 (Lowe in 1914, Smith in 1925). Ireland’s Brian O’Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with 26.

The record for appearances is held by Sergio Parisse of Italy, with 69 appearances,[24]
since his Six Nations debut in 2004.

The most points scored by a squad in one friction match was 80 points, scored past England against Italy in 2001. England likewise scored the most ever points in a flavor in 2001 with 229, and nearly tries in a flavor with 29.[23]
Wales agree the record for fewest tries conceded during a season in the Vi Nations era, conceding simply ii in five games in 2008, but the 1977 Grand Slam-winning France squad did not concede a try in their four matches. Wales concur the tape for the longest time without conceding a attempt, at 358 minutes in the 2013 tournament.

Assistants

[edit]

The Championship is run from headquarters in Dublin, Ireland by 6 Nations Rugby Ltd.[25]
Benjamin Morel became the CEO of the Six Nations Title every bit of 5 November 2018,[26]
[27]
[28]
replacing John Feehan, who stepped downwards on 20 April 2018.[29]
[30]



Media


[edit]

The BBC has long covered the tournament in the United Kingdom, dissemination all matches apart from England home matches between 1997 and 2002, which were shown alive by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC. In add-on, Welsh language coverage of broadcasts matches featuring the Welsh team shown by the BBC are shown on S4C in Wales in the Uk.[31]
Between 2003 and 2015, the BBC covered every match alive on BBC Sport either on BBC 1 or BBC Two with highlights also on the BBC Sport website and either on the BBC Ruddy Button or tardily at dark on BBC Two. In 2011, it was appear that the BBC’s coverage of the tournament on Telly, radio and online would be extended to 2017.[32]

On 9 July 2015, in reaction to bids past Sky for the rights beginning in 2018, the BBC ended its contract two seasons early, and renegotiated a articulation contract with ITV Sport for rights to the Half-dozen Nations from 2016 through 2021. ITV acquired rights to England, Republic of ireland and Italy home matches, while the BBC retained rights to France, Scotland and Wales home matches. By ending its contract early on, the BBC saved around £xxx meg, while the new contract generated £twenty million in boosted revenue for the Vi Nations.[33]

With the end of the contract nearing, speculation once once again emerged in 2020 that Sky was pursuing rights to the Six Nations from 2022 onward; under the Ofcom “listed events” rules, rights to the tournament can exist held by a pay television aqueduct if delayed broadcasts or highlights are made bachelor on gratis-to-air television set. It was reported that the bid for CVC Equity Partners to purchase a stake in the Vi Nations was beingness hindered past a desire for a more lucrative broadcast contract; a call for the Vi Nations to be moved to Category A (which requires alive coverage to air free-to-air) was rejected.[34]
[35]
In May 2021, the BBC and ITV renewed their contracts through 2025. The BBC will go along to broadcast home matches from Scotland and Wales and all women’s and under-20s matches, with ITV airing England, French republic, Ireland and Italy home matches.[36]
[37]

In Ireland, RTÉ take broadcast the championship since RTÉ’s inception and connected to practice so until 2017, while TG4 televised highlights. All the same, in late 2015 RTÉ’s free-to-air rival TV3 was awarded the rights for every game from the 6 Nations on Irish gaelic telly from 2018 to 2021.[38]
In 2022 it was announced that RTÉ and Virgin Media would share broadcasting rights.[39]

France Télévisions covered the contest in France.[40]

In Italian republic, from 2014 to 2021 DMAX of Discovery Communications broadcast all matches.

In the United States, NBC Sports broadcasts matches in English language and TV5 Monde arrogance matches in French.[41]

Country Broadcaster Summary

Great britain
  • BBC Sport
  • ITV Sport
  • All dwelling house games from Scotland, and Wales on BBC Ane until 2025.
  • All dwelling games from England, France, Ireland, and Italy on ITV/STV until 2025.
S4C Wales games in the Welsh linguistic communication

France
France two All games

Democracy of Ireland
  • RTÉ
  • Virgin Media Television
All games until 2025

Italian republic
DMAX All games until 2021


[edit]

Until 1998, the Championship had no title sponsor. Sponsorship rights were sold to Lloyds TSB Grouping for the 1999 tournament and the competition was titled the
Lloyds TSB 5 Nations
and
Lloyds TSB 6 Nations
until 2002.[42]

The Imperial Bank of Scotland Group took over sponsorship from 2003 until 2017, with the contest beingness branded the
RBS half-dozen Nations. A new championship sponsor was sought for the 2018 tournament and beyond.[43]
However, after struggling to find a new sponsor, organisers agreed a i-yr extension at a reduced rate. As the RBS brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after the NatWest banking subsidiary, becoming the
NatWest half-dozen Nations.[44]

On vii December 2018, Guinness was announced as the Championship’due south new title sponsor, with the competition to be named the
Guinness 6 Nations
from 2019 to 2024.[45]
[n 1]

Come across also

[edit]

  • The Rugby Championship, an analogous tournament of national teams in the Southern Hemisphere
  • Rugby Europe International Championships, for second- and third-tier national teams in Europe
  • Six Nations Nether 20s Title
  • Women’south Vi Nations Championship
  • British Home Championship, a like tournament in association football

References

[edit]

Notes

[edit]

  1. ^


    a




    b



    The French Loi Évin prohibits alcohol sponsorship of sport, so Guinness does non appear in the name there; the slogan “Half dozen Nations Greatness” is used to hint at the word
    Guinness.[1]

Sources

[edit]

  • Godwin, Terry (1984).
    The International Rugby Championship 1883–1983. London: Willows Books. ISBN978-0-00-218060-three.

  • Starmer-Smith, Nigel, ed. (1986).
    Rugby – A Way of Life, An Illustrated History of Rugby. Lennard Books. ISBN978-0-7126-2662-0.

  • Narz, Naomi, ed. (2019).
    Rugby – Wales and U.s. Connection, A showing of LDR feats in sport. Rich Books.

Citations

[edit]


  1. ^


    Tézenas du Montcel, Magali (5 Feb 2019). “L’exception française au cœur du ‘Guinness/Greatness 6 Nations’“.
    Les Échos
    (in French). Retrieved
    11 March
    2019
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  2. ^

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External links

[edit]

  • Six Nations official website



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Nations_Championship

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