International Space Station

ISS of STS-132

The flags of the participating countries: United States, United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Brazil, Japan, Norway, and Russia.
ISS insignia.svg
Station statistics
Call sign Alpha,
Crew Fully crewed: vi

Currently aboard:5

Launch 20 Nov 1998; 23 years ago
Launch pad
  • Baikonur ane/5 and 81/23
  • Kennedy LC-39 and CCAFS SLC-41
Mass ≈ 419,725 kg (925,335 lb)[1]
Length 72.viii 1000 (239 ft)
Width 108.5 chiliad (356 ft)
Height ≈ 20 m (66 ft)
nadir–zenith, arrays forrad–aft

(27 Nov 2009)[
dated info

Pressurised volume 931.57 m3
(32,898 cu ft)[two]

(28 May 2016)
Atmospheric pressure 101.iii kPa (29.nine inHg; 1.0 atm)
Perigee 408 km (253.five mi) AMSL[3]
Apogee 410 km (254.8 mi) AMSL[iii]
Orbital inclination 51.64°[3]
Orbital speed 7.66 km/s[3]

(27,600 km/h; 17,100 mph)
Orbital period 92.68 minutes[3]
Orbits per day 15.54[3]
Orbit epoch 14 May 2019 thirteen:09:29  UTC[three]
Days in orbit 23 years, 2 months, 17 days

(6 Feb 2022)
Days occupied 21 years, three months, iv days

(half dozen February 2022)
of orbits
116,178 as of May 2019[update]
Orbital decay 2 km/month
Statistics as of nine March 2011
(unless noted otherwise)
The components of the ISS in an exploded diagram, with modules on-orbit highlighted in orange, and those still awaiting launch in blue or pink

Station elements every bit of July 2021[update]

(exploded view)

International Space Station
(ISS) is a space station, a very large satellite that people can live in for several months at a fourth dimension. Information technology was put together in Low Earth orbit up until 2011, but other bits have been added since then. The last function, a Bigelow module was added in 2016. The station is a joint project among several areas of the world: the United States, Russian federation, Europe, Japan, and Canada. Other nations such as Brazil, Italia, and Red china also piece of work with the ISS through cooperation with other countries.

Building the ISS began in 1998, when Russian and American infinite modules were joined together.


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In the early 1980s, NASA planned Space Station Liberty as a analogue to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. Information technology never left the cartoon lath and, with the end of the Soviet Matrimony and the Cold War, information technology was cancelled. The end of the Infinite Race prompted the U.Due south. administration officials to start negotiations with international partners Europe, Russia, Japan and Canada in the early 1990s in social club to build a truly international infinite station. This project was first announced in 1993 and was chosen Space Station Alpha.[7]
Information technology was planned to combine the proposed infinite stations of all participating space agencies: NASA’due south Infinite Station Freedom, Russia’s Mir-ii (the successor to the Mir Space Station, the core of which is now Zvezda) and ESA’s Columbus that was planned to be a stand-lone spacelab.


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The ISS components was manufactured in various factories all over the world, and were all shipped into the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Middle for final stages of manufacturing, machine assembly and launch processing. The components are made from stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and copper.


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The assembly of the International Space Station is a great effect in infinite architecture.[4]
Russian modules launched and docked by their rockets. All other pieces were delivered by the Space Shuttle. Equally of 5 June 2011[update], they had added 159 components during more than ane,000 hours of EVA.[eight]
Many of the modules that launched on the Space Shuttle were tested on the ground at the Space Station Processing Facility to find and correct problems earlier launch.

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The first section, the Zarya Functional Cargo Block, was put in orbit in November 1998 on a Russian Proton rocket. Ii further pieces (the Unity Module and Zvezda service module) were added earlier the first coiffure, Trek 1, was sent. Trek 1 docked to the ISS on 1 November 2000, and consisted of U.S. astronaut William Shepherd and two Russian cosmonauts, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergey Krikalev.

Associates of the International Space Station
Parts Assembly flight Launch engagement Launch vehicle Separate Views View with station
1A/R 1998-11-20 Proton-K Zarya from STS-88.jpg Zarya from STS-88.jpg
(Node one),[10]
PMA-one & PMA-two
2A 1998-12-04 Space Shuttle
ISS Unity module.jpg Sts088-703-019e.jpg
(Service Module)[eleven]
1R 2000-07-12 Proton-M View of the bottom of Zvezda.jpg Unity-Zarya-Zvezda STS-106.jpg
Z1 Truss & PMA-3 3A 2000-10-11 Infinite Shuttle
ISS Unity and Z1 truss structure from STS-92.jpg S97e5009.jpg
P6 Truss & Solar Arrays 4A 2000-11-30 Infinite Shuttle
STS-97 ISS.jpg STS-97 ISS.jpg
(Usa Laboratory)[12]
5A 2001-02-07 Space Shuttle
ISS Destiny Lab.jpg Sts098-312-0020.jpg
External Stowage Platform-1 5A.1 2001-03-08 Infinite Shuttle
STS-102 External Storage Platform 1 crop.jpg S102e5350.jpg
Canadarm2 (SSRMS) 6A 2001-04-19 Infinite Shuttle
STS-114 Steve Robinson on Canadarm2.jpg S100e5958 cropped.jpg
(Joint Airlock)[thirteen]
7A 2001-07-12 Space Shuttle
ISS Quest airlock.jpg ISS on 20 August 2001.jpg
(Docking Compartment & Airlock)
4R 2001-09-fourteen Soyuz-U
(Progress M-SO1)
Pirs docking module taken by STS-108.jpg S108e5628.jpg
S0 Truss[14] 8A 2002-04-08 Space Shuttle
S0 Truss lifted from Shuttles cargo bay.jpg International Space Station.jpg
Mobile Base of operations Arrangement UF2 2002-06-05 Infinite Shuttle
STS-111 Installation of Mobile Base System.jpg Sts111-711-005.jpg
S1 Truss 9A 2002-x-07 Infinite Shuttle
ISS S1 Truss.jpg Space Station as photographed by a STS-112 crewmember.jpg
P1 Truss 11A 2002-11-23 Space Shuttle
ISS Truss structure.jpg ISS Mission STS-113.jpg
ESP-2 LF1 2005-07-26 Space Shuttle
STS-114 External Storage Platform 2 crop.jpg ISS Aug2005.jpg
P3/P4 Truss & Solar Arrays[15] 12A 2006-09-09 Space Shuttle
STS-115 Truss Handoff.jpg STS-115 ISS after undocking.jpg
P5 Truss[xvi] 12A.1 2006-12-09 Space Shuttle
STS-116 - ISS P5 Truss awaits installation (NASA ISS014-E-09479).jpg ISS after STS-116 in December 2006.jpg
S3/S4 Truss & Solar Arrays 13A 2007-06-08 Infinite Shuttle
S3-S4 Truss Installed 2.jpg ISS after STS-117 in June 2007.jpg
S5 Truss and ESP-3 2007-08-08 Space Shuttle
STS-118 ESP-3 on RMS.jpg ISS after STS-118 in August 2007.jpg
(Node two)

Relocation of P6 Truss
10A 2007-ten-23 Space Shuttle
Harmony Relocation.jpg ISS seen from STS-122.jpg
(European Laboratory)[17]
1E 2008-02-07 Space Shuttle
Columbus module in orbit.jpg STS-122 ISS Flyaround.jpg
Japanese Logistics Module (ELM-PS)
1J/A 2008-03-11 Space Shuttle
S123 Dextre01.jpg STS-123 ISS Flyaround cropped.jpg
Japanese Pressurized Module (JEM-PM)
JEM Robotic Arm (JEM-RMS)[18]
1J 2008-05-31 Infinite Shuttle
STS-124 Kibo.jpg ISS after STS-124 06 2008.jpg
S6 Truss & Solar Arrays 15A 2009-03-15 Space Shuttle
S6 Truss Transfer (STS-119).jpg ISS March 2009.jpg
Japanese Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) 2J/A 2009-07-fifteen Infinite Shuttle
STS-127 JEM-EF.jpg ISS & Endeavour Shadow STS-127 2.jpg
5R 2009-11-10 Soyuz-U
(Progress Thousand-MIM2)
Poisk.Jpeg STS-129 Atlantis approaches below the ISS.jpg
ExPRESS Logistics Carriers ane & ii ULF3 2009-11-sixteen Space Shuttle
Express 1 2.JPG ISS ULF3 STS-129.jpg
Cupola &
(Node iii)
20A 2010-02-08 Space Shuttle
Tranquility-node3.JPG ISSpoststs130.jpg
ULF4 2010-05-14 Space Shuttle
MRM-1 at KSC.jpg International Space Station after undocking of STS-132.jpg
(PMM) and Limited Logistics Carrier 4
ULF5 2011-02-24 Space Shuttle
STS-133 ISS-26 Permanent Multipurpose Module.jpg FHRC and CTC4 on the HTV-2 EP image.png STS-133 International Space Station after undocking.jpg
Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, OBSS and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 ULF6 2011-05-sixteen Infinite Shuttle
STS-134 the starboard truss of the ISS with the newly-installed AMS-02.jpg STS-134 ELC-3 in the grasp of Endeavour's robotic arm.jpg STS-134 International Space Station after undocking.jpg
Bigelow Expandable Activity Module[23] 2016-04-08 Falcon ix

(SpaceX CRS-8)

Parts Assembly flight Launch date Launch vehicle Split up View View with station

Life in infinite

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People living in the space station have to get used to all kinds of changes from life on Earth. Information technology takes them only 90 minutes to orbit (go effectually) the earth, so the sun looks as if it is ascension and setting 16 times a 24-hour interval. This can be confusing, especially when i is trying to make up one’s mind when they should get to bed. The astronauts effort to keep a 24-hour-schedule anyhow. At bedtime, they have to sleep in sleeping bags that are stuck to the wall. They have to strap themselves inside then they volition not float away while sleeping.[24]

Zero gravity

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In orbit there is no K-Force (this is called free autumn or
zero gravity). To help prepare astronauts experience cipher gravity, NASA trainers put the astronauts in water. Because water makes 1 bladder, this is a little like experiencing no gravity. However, in water they can button against the h2o and move effectually. In zero gravity, there is nothing to push against, so they just float in the air. Some other way of training is going in a airplane and making the plane fall to earth very quickly. This lets people experience cipher gravity for a very brusque time. This preparation can make people quite sick at kickoff.

In zero gravity, the astronauts practise not use their legs very much, so they need to get lots of practice to go on them from condign too weak. Without gravity, astronauts can go big upper bodies and skinny legs. This is called chicken-leg syndrome. Astronauts must do hard, every mean solar day, to remain healthy.

Eating in infinite way is hard. Water and other liquids exercise not menstruation down in infinite, so if any were spilled in the space station, it would bladder around everywhere. Liquids tin can ruin electronic equipment, and then astronauts have to exist very careful in space. They beverage by sucking h2o out of a bag, or from a tube stuck to the wall. They cannot put their food on plates because it would just float correct off, so they put it in pouches and eat from the pouches. The food they consume is usually dried, considering whatsoever crumbs tin ruin the equipment.
Sometimes fresh fruits and vegetables are sent up to the astronauts, but it is very expensive and hard to ship it, then they have to bring plenty of food with them.[24]


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In infinite, the
should probably exist called the
instead, because one actually tin can not take baths there. Instead, astronauts use eject guns to have a shower. I person squirts himself with a gun while other people stand outside with a h2o vacuum to become rid of all the water that floats out of the shower. This is quite hard, so astronauts ordinarily simply have a “sponge bath” with a wet cloth.
Toilets can be another problem. Toilets are supposed to use gravity to work. When one flushes a toilet, gravity makes the h2o go down. Since the astronauts on the ISS practice not feel any gravity, the toilet must exist attached to the astronauts and gently suck away all their waste.[24]


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  1. 1.0

    Garcia, Marking (9 May 2018). “Nigh the Space Station: Facts and Figures”. NASA. Retrieved
    21 June

  2. “Infinite to Ground: Friending the ISS: 06/03/2016”. NASA. 3 June 2016.

  3. 3.0

    Peat, Chris (28 September 2018). “ISS – Orbit”.
    . Retrieved
    28 September

  4. four.0

    NASA (18 February 2010). “On-Orbit Elements”
    (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original
    on 29 Oct 2009. Retrieved
    19 June

  5. “STS-132 Printing Kit”
    (PDF). NASA. vii May 2010. Retrieved
    19 June

  6. “STS-133 FD 04 Execute Parcel”
    (PDF). NASA. 27 February 2011. Retrieved
    27 February

  7. GAO (June 1994). “Space Station: Bear on of the Expanded Russian Role on Funding and Enquiry
    (PDF). GAO. Retrieved
    3 November

  8. “The ISS to Appointment”. NASA. ix March 2011. Retrieved
    21 March

  9. Wade, Mark (15 July 2008). “ISS Zarya”. Encyclopaedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved
    11 March

  10. “Unity Connecting Module: Cornerstone for a Home in Orbit”
    (PDF). NASA. January 1999. Archived
    from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved
    11 March

  11. “Zvezda Service Module”. NASA. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved
    xi March

  12. “US Destiny Laboratory”. NASA. 26 March 2007. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved
    26 June

  13. “Infinite Station Extravehicular Activity”. NASA. four April 2004. Archived from the original on 3 Apr 2009. Retrieved
    11 March

  14. “Space Station Assembly: Integrated Truss Structure”. NASA. Archived from the original on 7 December 2007. Retrieved
    2 Dec

  15. “P3 and P4 to expand station capabilities, providing a third and fourth solar array”
    (pdf). Boeing. July 2006. Retrieved
    2 December

    (PDF). NASA PAO. July 2007. Archived
    from the original on 1 Dec 2007. Retrieved
    2 December

  17. “Columbus laboratory”. ESA. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved
    6 March

  18. “About Kibo”. JAXA. 25 September 2008. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved
    six March

  19. “Kibo Japanese Experiment Module”. NASA. 23 November 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved
    22 Nov

  20. Zak, Anatoly. “Docking Compartment-ane and 2”. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved
    26 March

  21. Bergin, Chris (9 November 2009). “Russian module launches via Soyuz for Th ISS docking”. Archived from the original on 13 Nov 2009. Retrieved
    x November

  22. NASA (ix April 2007). “NASA Extends Contract With Russian federation’s Federal Infinite Agency”. Press release. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007.
    . Retrieved 2007-06-xv.

  23. “NASA to Test Bigelow Expandable Module on Infinite Station”. NASA. 16 January 2013. Retrieved
    16 January

  24. 24.0

    “Living and Working on the International Space Station”
    (PDF). CSA. Archived from the original
    on xix Apr 2009. Retrieved
    28 Oct

Other websites

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  • International Space Station -Citizendium