SpaceX launched its second mission in two months for Telesat Canada Sunday, with a Falcon 9 rocket placing the Telstar 18V satellite into geostationary transfer orbit. Falcon lifted off from the Cape Canaveral Air Forcefulness Station during a four-60 minutes window opening at 23:28 Eastern time (03:28 UTC on Monday) – with a T-0 moved to 00:45 (04:45 UTC) due to poor conditions – and took only over thirty-2 minutes to consummate its mission.

Telstar 18 Vantage, or Telstar 18V, is the latest spacecraft to be launched equally Telesat Canada upgrades its armada of geostationary communications satellites. Like the crumbling Telstar eighteen satellite which it is expected to replace, Telstar 18V will be jointly operated by Telesat and the Hong Kong-based APT Satellite Company, who have designated the spacecraft APStar-5C.

Space Systems/Loral constructed Telstar 18V, which is based on the SSL-1300 platform. At launch, the satellite had a mass of about 7,060 kilograms (xv,600 lb) and a design life of fifteen years. Information technology carries a payload of high-throughput C- and Ku-ring transponders that will back up video, data and mobile communications in the Asia-Pacific region.

Once it reaches its last geostationary orbit, Telstar 18V will exist stationed over the equator at a longitude of 138 degrees East – higher up the Pacific Ocean only north of the Indonesian province of Papua. From this slot the satellite’s C-ring transponders volition cover much of Asia, Australasia and parts of the Pacific Ocean including Hawaii. The Ku-band payload will cover specific markets, with beams targeting Western Australia and New Zealand, People’s republic of china, Indonesia and Malaysia, Indochina, Mongolia and providing regional coverage of the North Pacific.

Artists impression of Telstar 18V – via SSL

The Telstar 18 satellite that will be replaced by Telstar 18V was deployed past Sea Launch in June 2004, lifting off from the ocean-based Odyssey launch platform atop a three-stage Zenit-3SL rocket. The rocket’due south Blok DM-SL upper stage cut out virtually 50 seconds earlier than planned, leaving Telstar eighteen in a lower-than-planned deployment orbit. Despite having to burn down fuel that had been intended for station-keeping to correct its orbit, Telstar xviii has exceeded its planned 13-year service life.

Telesat acquired the Telstar fleet – which it operates in addition to its Anik and Nimiq series of spacecraft – in a 2007 merger with Loral Skynet. The Telstar series dates back to the early 1980s, when AT&T looked to constitute its own fleet of satellites with the Telstar 301, 302 and 303 spacecraft. Telstar 301 was launched past a Delta 3920/PAM-D rocket in July 1983, with Telstars 302 and 303 beingness deployed from Space Shuttle Discovery during 1984’s STS-41D and 1985’due south STS-51G missions respectively.

The name Telstar itself dates back farther, to the outset commercial satellite – Telstar 1 – which was launched in July 1962 as an experimental low World orbit active communications satellite. Depression orbit communications satellites quickly fell out of favor after NASA’s Syncom missions proved that geostationary orbits were more applied for communications. Past matching the speed of the World’s rotation, a geostationary satellite tin can remain at a near-fixed indicate relative to the surface, allowing a unmarried satellite to provide continuous coverage of a region and eliminating the need for users to reorient their receivers equally the satellite moves across the sky.

The Telstar 300-serial satellites were followed by the brusk-lived Telstars 401 and 402: the latter of which exploded in orbit before long afterwards deployment in 1993, while Telstar 401 stopped operating within iii years due to damage sustained during a magnetic storm. A replacement, Telstar 402R, was launched in 1995. This was renamed Telstar 4 in 1997, after Loral purchased the fleet. Further satellites, Telstars 5, six and 7, were launched in the tardily 1990s, while Orion Network Systems’ Orion one and Orion 2 spacecraft were added to the fleet every bit Telstar 10 and Telstar 11 following a 1998 takeover. Telstar 13 was launched in August 2003.

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To assist alleviate fiscal issues, Loral sold Telstars v, 6, 7 and xiii to Intelsat in 2003, along with the Telstar 8 satellite that was still under structure. Telstar four was also to have been part of the deal, but it failed before the auction could be finalized. The penultimate satellite to be launched under Loral’s ownership was Telstar 14, deployed by a Zenit-3SL rocket in Jan 2004. 1 of the satellite’southward solar panels failed to deploy, still information technology was even so able to enter service with a reduced capacity. Telstar 18 was launched in June 2004.

Afterward Telesat acquired Telstar in 2007, its beginning launch was the 2009 deployment of Telstar 11N to supersede the fifteen-year-erstwhile Telstar 11. In 2011, Telstar 14R was launched to replace Telstar 14, although the satellite suffered the same solar array malfunction as had afflicted its predecessor.

Telstar 18V is the third geostationary “Vantage” satellite to exist launched for Telesat. The Vantage designation, which the company has applied to its newest generation of loftier-throughput satellites, is intended to signify their additional capabilities over the spacecraft they are replacing. Telstar 12V was launched aboard a Japanese H-IIA rocket in 2015, while Telstar 19V was deployed by a Falcon 9 in July.

Falcon 9 and Telstar 19V head uphill – via Brady Kenniston for NSF/L2

In addition to its geostationary fleet, Telesat has been experimenting with low Earth orbit communications via two miniature satellites, every bit a precursor to a possible network of spacecraft. I of these satellites was destroyed afterward a Russian Soyuz rocket failed to reach orbit final year, however the second was deployed by Bharat’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in January.

Telstar 18V rode to orbit atop SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket. Beginning flown in 2010, Falcon nine is the just rocket currently flying that is partially reusable, with the rocket’s kickoff stage able to fly back to Earth – either dorsum to its launch site or a landing platform at sea – for refurbishment and use on time to come missions. Sunday’south launch employ a newly-built rocket, with the kickoff phase designated Cadre 1049.ane. Still, information technology was once again recovered later completing its role in the mission and will fly again.

Founded by entrepreneur Elon Musk, Infinite Exploration Technologies Corporation – or SpaceX – was formed with the goal of reducing the price of access to space, with a view to future human colonization of Mars. The company made its first satellite launch try in 2006 with the Falcon 1 rocket – achieving success at the fourth attempt two and a one-half years later. Falcon ane served as a pathfinder for the much larger Falcon nine and was retired later its fifth launch deployed SpaceX’s first commercial payload in July 2009.

Prior to Sunday’due south launch, Falcon nine had made sixty flights – with its only failure coming in 2015, when a helium tank broke loose during the rise, causing the second stage oxidizer tank to overpressurize and rupture, with the loss of the CRS-seven Dragon resupply mission spring for the International Infinite Station. One of Falcon 9’due south early on launches suffered an engine failure during beginning stage flying: the rocket was nonetheless able to deliver its primary payload – also a Dragon – to the right orbit, but a 2d satellite aboard the rocket was a total loss.

The starting time Block five launching – via Brady Kenniston for NSF/L2

In September 2016 a Falcon 9 exploded during fuelling ahead of a ground test – a static fire a few days before the planned launch of Israel’s Amos 6 communications satellite. The rocket, and the satellite which was mated to it at the fourth dimension of the accident, were destroyed.

Despite these incidents, Falcon 9 has proven itself a reliable workhorse for the commercial space industry and has flown forty-ane consecutive successful missions – 30-two of these since the testing accident involving Amos 6 – prior to Sunday’s launch. From next yr, Falcon 9 is expected to carry NASA astronauts on missions to the International Space Station aboard SpaceX’s new Dragon v2 spacecraft – one of 2 Commercial Crew vehicles that the United states is developing. The 2d Commercial Crew vehicle – Boeing’s Starliner – will be launched by United Launch Alliance’s Atlas V.

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Sunday’s launch took place from Space Launch Circuitous 40 (SLC-40) at the Greatcoat Canaveral Air Force Station. Originally built in the 1960s, this launch pad formed part of the Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) complex for Titan rockets – aslope nearby Space Launch Complex 41, which is now used past the Atlas 5. Betwixt 1966 and 2005, 50-v Titan III(23)C, Titan 3(34)D, Commercial Titan III and Titan Four rockets flew from Complex 40. Afterwards the Titan IV was retired from service, SpaceX leased SLC-forty from the US Air Force in 2007, demolishing its fixed and mobile service structures the following year in favor of a clean pad approach.

SpaceX integrates the Falcon 9 horizontally in a hangar they have built close to the launch pad. The rocket is rolled out to its launch position atop a transporter-erector, known as the Strongback, for a static fire test a few days before the planned launch. For the Telstar 18V launch, the static fire was performed on Wed forenoon. Since the Amos six blow, SpaceX has not attempted a static fire with a payload aboard its rocket, and then after the exam was complete the rocket was rolled back to its hangar for mating with it payload fairing, within which the Telstar satellite was encapsulated. The rocket was then returned to the launch pad.

Cake 5 Falcon 9 on the pad – via Chris Gebhardt for NSF/L2

Falcon 9 is a two-stage rocket, with both stages called-for RP-one propellant – a refined form of kerosene – oxidized by subcooled liquid oxygen. Fuelling of the rocket occurs late in the countdown – with the launch director giving a “get” for the functioning to brainstorm 38 minutes alee of the planned liftoff. Loading of RP-ane onto both stages and liquid oxygen into the start phase tanks commenced about three minutes after. Second stage oxidizer loading began about 16 minutes before launch.

The last minutes of the inaugural saw a series of terminal checks and vehicle arming processes performed. Seven minutes before liftoff chilldown of the rocket’southward commencement stage engines began, preparing them for the liquid oxygen that was pumped into their combustion chambers at ignition. About four minutes and fifteen seconds before liftoff, the arms that secure Falcon 9 to the strongback began to open up with the strongback itself retracting slightly abroad from the rocket half a minute later. This initial retraction was followed by the construction moving rapidly to its fully retracted position at the moment of liftoff.

Inside the terminal minute of the countdown, the rocket’southward onboard computers were allowable to perform final checks before liftoff and the propellant tanks were brought upwardly to flight pressure level. With about twoscore-five seconds remaining the launch director gave a concluding “get” for launch.

The start stage is powered by ix Merlin-1D engines, which are bundled in an octagonal pattern known as the OctaWeb. These began their ignition sequence about three seconds before the zero mark in the inaugural. At T-0, Falcon 9 lifted off to begin its sixty-first mission. After immigration Infinite Launch Complex forty’due south lightning protection towers the rocket maneuvered onto an easterly launch azimuth, taking information technology out over the Atlantic Ocean. Threescore-seven seconds into flying the vehicle passed through the expanse of maximum dynamic pressure, Max-Q, where the combination of speed and outside air density – which decreases as the rocket ascends – places Falcon under top mechanical stress.

Two minutes and 33 seconds after lifting off, Falcon reached the signal of main engine cutoff (MECO). This is where the first phase, having fulfilled its function in the mission, close down its engines before separating from the 2d phase, which connected to boost Telstar 18V towards orbit. Separation of the ii stages took identify four seconds subsequently MECO, with the 2d stage igniting its Merlin Vacuum (MVac) engine – a version of the Merlin-1D optimized for operation in the vacuum of space – eight seconds later.

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While the 2d stage continues towards orbit, the outset stage – Core 1049 – performed a series of maneuvers as it returned to Earth for recovery and hereafter reuse. Soon after separation, the booster reoriented itself for reentry into World’southward atmosphere and deployed grid fins to help stabilize and guide its descent. At nigh three minutes and 40 seconds subsequently staging, iii engines restarted for a brief entry burn, slowing the cadre every bit it passed back into the atmosphere in order to limit heating that could cause damage.

A little under 2 minutes after making its entry burn, the beginning stage brainstorm its landing burn down as information technology approached the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship (ASDS), a landing platform based on a converted clomp that has been towed out into the Atlantic in preparation for Sun’s mission. The ASDS that was used for this mission is named Of Course I Nonetheless Love You lot, later a transport in the Civilization series of novels by author Iain Yard. Banks. It is one of two such ships SpaceX employ to recover boosters downrange – alongside the West Coast ASDS, Simply Read the Instructions. A third – A Shortfall of Gravitas – is under construction.

Landing aboard Of Course I Nevertheless Dear Y’all came at viii minutes, 32 seconds mission elapsed time. After landing, SpaceX will likely employ a robotic vehicle – known informally as the OctaGrabber – to secure the rocket for ship back to Port Canaveral.

A booster returning on the drone send (Iridium NEXT-3 booster on JRTI) – via Sam Sun for NSF/L2

The employ of the ASDS allows SpaceX to recover the first stage forth the trajectory it is flying at the time of separation – eliminating the need to reserve fuel for a boostback burn to change the trajectory afterwards separation and allowing the stage to be recovered even on high-energy geosynchronous launches.

The success of the Telstar 18V launch was not defined by whether the first stage is recovered successfully, but by the 2nd stage delivering the satellite to its planned orbit. During Sun’s mission, Falcon’southward second stage made ii burns to complete this objective. Its first burn lasted for v minutes and 29 seconds, setting upwards an initial parking orbit. Falcon ix’southward payload fairing separated from the nose of the vehicle about forty-four seconds after ignition, exposing Telstar 18V to space for the starting time time.

While SpaceX has been developing a process to recover the payload fairing – by landing it nether parachute aboard a gunkhole fitted with a big net – the recovery send Mr. Steven is based on California, and so was not used on this launch. Despite this, SpaceX may still practice part of its recovery process, deploying parachutes and potentially recovering the fairing from the water after splashdown. Due to contamination from the salt h2o, fairings recovered from the body of water cannot be reused on time to come missions.

The 2d phase made its 2d and final burn subsequently an eighteen-minute, iii-2nd coast period. This 40-three second firing of the Merlin Vacuum engine injected Telstar 18V into geostationary transfer orbit, with spacecraft separation coming at thirty-ii minutes and one 2d mission elapsed time – just over v minutes after the terminate of the second burn. From its transfer orbit, Telstar 18V volition make several maneuvers under its own ability to reach a circular geostationary orbit.

Sunday’southward launch was the fifteenth Falcon 9 mission of the year, and the sixteenth for SpaceX – a number which as well includes February’due south test flying of the Falcon Heavy rocket. The side by side Falcon nine launch is currently scheduled to fly no earlier than (NET) 7 October, when the rocket will deploy Argentina’s SAOCOM-1A radar imaging satellite.

Source: https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/09/spacex-falcon-telstar-18v-launch/